NIH Research Matters
April 2011 Archive
April 25, 2011
The distribution of cancers among people living with HIV and AIDS in the United States has undergone a dramatic shift. Certain cancers long associated with AIDS progression have declined, while other cancers are on the rise.
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, damage to immune cells limits the lungs' ability to fight off bacterial infections. According to a new study, boosting the activity of a molecule in these cells can restore their defenses.
Researchers have identified a gene that is critical for maintaining and regenerating muscle. The finding may lead to therapies for muscle-wasting diseases and age-related muscle decline.
April 18, 2011
Researchers have performed the first comprehensive genomic analysis of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The findings provide a better basis for understanding melanoma and developing new treatment strategies.
A new type of test that detects "foreign" DNA in a patientís bloodstream may provide early clues to organ rejection. The technique could offer an alternative to the expensive and invasive biopsies now used to detect transplant failure.
Researchers have found that defects in a molecule called a small nuclear RNA (snRNA) are responsible for a rare genetic disease. The finding represents the first time that snRNAs have been linked to disease.
April 11, 2011
In 2 massive studies, scientists from around the world identified 5 new genes that may be risk factors for late-onset Alzheimerís disease.
Boosting the survival of neurons in the brainís memory hub improved the cognitive ability of mice. Adding exercise produced antidepressant effects. The findings suggest new strategies for treating cognitive, mood and anxiety disorders.
Researchers zoomed in on mouse chromosomes to map hotspots of genetic recombination—sites where DNA breaks and reforms to shuffle genes. The findings will help give insight into how mammals evolve and respond to their environments.
April 4, 2011
A new approach for attacking pancreatic tumors may lead to improved therapy for patients with inoperable disease, scientists report. The strategy offers hope for more effective techniques to eliminate tumors.
Researchers have found a common mutation in patients with pediatric cataracts that could broaden our understanding of how the eye develops.
Genetic variations that lie outside of any known genes can lead to disease. Findings from a new study may help explain why.
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About NIH Research Matters
Harrison Wein, Ph.D., Editor
Vicki Contie, Assistant Editor
NIH Research Matters is a weekly update of NIH research highlights from the Office of Communications and Public Liaison, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.