"Both drinking behavior and an individual's response to stress are determined by multiple
genetic and environmental factors," said National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Director Enoch Gordis, M.D. "If borne out in humans, these findings elucidate the alcohol-stress
relationship in two ways: They confirm that early life stress can influence later alcohol
consumption, and they offer a promising biological marker of risk for excessive drinking."
"This research may one day lead to ways to prevent alcohol abuse in adults, as well as prevent
the devastating effects of alcohol on the developing fetus," said Duane Alexander, M.D., Director
of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). "It is indeed a
Led by J. Dee Higley, Ph.D., Laboratory of Clinical Studies-Primate Unit, NIAAA, and Stephen
Suomi, Ph.D., Chief, Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, NICHD, and funded by NIAAA,
NICHD, and the Swedish Medical Research Council, the researchers followed 97 rhesus
macaques from birth to young adulthood. Forty monkeys were separated from their mothers at
birth and placed in a neonatal nursery for the first month of life. After 30 days, these monkeys
were caged with 3 age-matched peers. Meanwhile, the other 57 monkeys under study remained
with their mothers.
When the monkeys were 6 months of age, they were separated briefly from their mothers or
peers to test the response to stress. Each monkey was placed into a separation cage where it
could hear and see but not touch other monkeys. After separation, blood tests were used to
measure plasma cortisol concentration. The researchers found that the stress of separation
caused the average cortisol concentration to double. Although cortisol levels in both peer-reared
and mother-reared monkeys increased in response to separation, the mean cortisol
concentration for peer-reared monkeys was significantly higher than the mean cortisol
concentration for mother-reared monkeys.
When the monkeys were young adults (3 to 5 years of age), they were observed for differences
in voluntary alcohol consumption. Each monkey had access to alcohol at a drinking station
unit, a clear, enclosed perch that enabled the animal to drink without interference from other
monkeys. Water was freely available during the periods that the alcohol solution was
dispensed. Monkeys that responded to separation as infants with high cortisol levels drank
significantly more alcohol as adults than did low-cortisol responders. On average, the adult
peer-reared monkeys drank more alcohol than did the mother-reared monkeys.
"These results extend the findings of earlier studies that found that cortisol doubles or triples
after separation," said Dr. Higley. "Today's study is the first to follow the monkeys to young
adulthood, assess the impact on future drinking behavior, and show that high cortisol levels
predict high alcohol consumption in young adults."
For interviews with Dr. Gordis and Dr. Higley, telephone NIAAA Press (301/443-3860). For
interviews with Dr. Suomi, telephone NICHD (301/496-5133). Additional alcohol research
information and publications are available at http://www.niaaa.nih.gov.