The NIH Almanac
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) primarily supports research that lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The Institute's research training programs help provide the next generation of scientists.
Each year, NIGMS-supported scientists make many advances in understanding fundamental life processes. In the course of answering basic research questions, these investigators increase our knowledge about the mechanisms and pathways involved in certain diseases. Institute grantees also develop important new tools and techniques, some of which have medical applications. In recognition of the significance of their work, a number of NIGMS grantees have received the Nobel Prize and other high scientific honors.
NIGMS is organized into divisions that support research and research training in a range of scientific fields. One division has the specific mission of increasing the diversity of the biomedical and behavioral research workforce.
NIGMS was established in 1962. In Fiscal Year 2012, the Institute's budget is $2.429 billion. The vast majority of this money goes into local economies through grants to scientists at universities, medical schools, hospitals and other research institutions throughout the country. At any given time, NIGMS supports approximately 4,700 research grants—approximately 11 percent of the grants funded by NIH as a whole. NIGMS also supports approximately 26 percent of the trainees who receive assistance from NIH. NIGMS also supports approximately 25% of the trainees who receive assistance from NIH.
The Institute places great emphasis on supporting investigator-initiated research grants. It funds a limited number of research center grants in selected fields, including structural genomics, trauma and burn research, and systems biology. In addition, NIGMS supports several important scientific resources, including the NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository and the Protein Data Bank.
NIGMS has initiatives in structural genomics (the Protein Structure Initiative), pharmacogenomics, and computational modeling of infectious disease outbreaks. The Institute also promotes the collaborative approaches increasingly needed to solve complex problems in biomedical science.
NIGMS research training programs recognize the interdisciplinary nature of biomedical research and stress approaches that cut across disciplinary and departmental lines. Such experience prepares trainees to pursue creative research careers in a wide variety of areas.
Certain NIGMS training programs address areas in which there are particularly compelling needs. One of these, the Medical Scientist Training Program, produces investigators who hold the combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree and are well trained in both basic science and clinical research. Other programs train scientists to conduct research in rapidly growing areas like biotechnology and at the interfaces between fields such as chemistry and biology and behavioral and biomedical sciences.
NIGMS also has a Pharmacology Research Associate Program, in which pharmacologically oriented postdoctoral scientists receive training in pharmacology in NIH or Food and Drug Administration laboratories.
Important Events in NIGMS History
July 16, 1958—The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) approved establishment of the Division of General Medical Sciences.
October 17, 1962—Congress authorized establishment of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.
January 30, 1963—The HEW Secretary approved establishment of NIGMS.
October 8, 1963—The National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council held its first meeting.
October 13, 1982—NIGMS celebrated its 20th anniversary by establishing the DeWitt Stetten, Jr., Lecture. Dr. David S. Hogness, Stanford University, gave the first lecture.
October 1, 1989—Administration of the Minority Biomedical Research Support Program was transferred to NIGMS from the NIH Division of Research Resources.
December 23, 2011—Administration of the Institutional Development Award program was transferred to NIGMS from the former National Center for Research Resources, along with NCRR’s biomedical technology programs.
NIGMS Legislative Chronology
October 17, 1962—Public Law 87-838 authorized the U.S. Surgeon General to establish an institute to conduct and support research and research training in the general or basic medical sciences and in related natural or behavioral sciences that have significance for two or more other institutes of NIH, or that lie outside the general areas of responsibility of any other institute.
Biographical Sketch of NIGMS Acting Director Judith H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Judith H. Greenberg, Ph.D., became acting director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences on July 8, 2011.
In this position, she oversees the Institute’s $2 billion budget, which mainly funds basic research in the areas of cell biology, biophysics, genetics, developmental biology, pharmacology, physiology, biological chemistry, bioinformatics and computational biology. NIGMS supports more than 4,700 research grants—about 11 percent of the grants funded by NIH as a whole—as well as a substantial amount of research training and programs designed to increase the diversity of the biomedical and behavioral research workforce.
A developmental biologist by training, Greenberg has directed the NIGMS Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology since 1988.
She served as NIGMS acting director once before, from May 2002 to November 2003.
Greenberg’s other leadership roles at NIGMS include overseeing the development of the Institute’s strategic plan issued in 2008 and its strategic plan for research training issued in 2011. She now chairs the implementation committee for the training strategic plan.
Her strong interest in bioethical issues related to genetics led Greenberg to hold the First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research in September 2000. In addition, she chaired an NIH working group on community consultation in genetic research, which issued a document entitled “Points to Consider When Planning a Genetic Study that Involves Members of Named Populations.” She currently serves on the NIH Bioethics Task Force.
Greenberg has also advised NIH on human embryonic stem cells and gene therapy. She has served as principal leader of the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award program since 2004 and of the NIH Director’s New Innovator Award program since its inception in 2007.
Greenberg was the NIH program representative to the Federal Demonstration Partnership from 1991 to 1998 and was a member of its executive committee from 1996 to 1998.
Prior to joining NIGMS as a program administrator in 1981, Greenberg conducted research in the intramural program of what is now the NIH’s National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Her focus was on cell migration and differentiation in early embryonic development.
Greenberg’s honors include a Public Health Service Special Recognition Award in 1991 and a Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award in 1999. Her leadership of the Pioneer and New Innovator Award programs was recognized with NIH Director’s Awards in 2006 and 2008, respectively.
Greenberg earned a B.S. degree in biology from the University of Pittsburgh, an M.A. degree in biology from Boston University and a Ph.D. degree in developmental biology from Bryn Mawr College.
|Name||In Office from||To|
|Clinton C. Powell||July 1962||July 1964|
|Frederick L. Stone||August 1964||April 1970|
|DeWitt Stetten, Jr.||October 1970||August 1974|
|Ruth L. Kirschstein||September 1974||July 1993|
|Marvin Cassman (Acting)||July 1993||August 1996|
|Marvin Cassman||August 1996||May 2002|
|Judith H. Greenberg (Acting)||May 2002||November 2003|
|Jeremy M. Berg||November 2003||July 2011|
|Judith H. Greenberg (Acting)||July 2011||Present|
Division of Biomedical Technology, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
The Division of Biomedical Technology, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology (BBCB) supports studies in and tools for understanding complex biological systems. The research and training it funds join biology with the computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and physics. The long-term goals of the division are to leverage data and technologies to answer fundamental questions about biology and to develop a more robust computing infrastructure for the biomedical research community. The division also defines NIGMS' needs for database development and applications as well as for a broad spectrum of biomedical technologies, techniques and methodologies. It collaborates with other NIH components and Federal agencies [an error occurred while processing this directive] in developing policies in these areas.The division focuses on 3 main areas: biomedical technology, bioinformatics and computational biology.
In this program area, the division supports projects that are focused on research to discover, create and develop innovative technologies for biomedical research, specifically in high-performance computing, molecular imaging, structural biology and proteomics. It provides this support through biomedical technology research centers, a research network , instrument development for biomedical applications, investigator-initiated research grants and small business grants.
Within the bioinformatics program, the division supports research to develop algorithms and tools for managing, visualizing and analyzing scientific data sets. This area within NIGMS identifies Institute needs for database development and creates opportunities for maintaining the most critical ones, and it encourages the adoption of software engineering best practices and rigorous statistical analyses in NIGMS-funded research.
Grants in computational biology support research in modeling, such as the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS), and systems biology, such as the National Centers for Systems Biology. Specifically, they foster systems biology approaches to study complex systems from the subcellular to physiological and population scales, the development of modeling and simulation tools across NIGMS mission areas and the advancement of methods for analyzing and disseminating computational models.
Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics
The Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics seeks greater understanding of the structure and function of cells, cellular components, and the biological macromolecules that make up these components. The research it supports ranges from studies of single molecules to work in structural genomics and proteomics. The long-term goal of the division is to better understand the basic structures and processes in living cells. This information may lay the foundation for ways to prevent, treat, and cure diseases that result from disturbed or abnormal cellular activity. The division has 3 components: the Biophysics Branch, the Cell Biology Branch, and the Structural Genomics and Proteomics Technology Branch.
This branch supports studies in the areas of biophysics, a discipline that uses techniques derived from the physical sciences to examine the structures and properties of biological molecules. Areas of emphasis in biophysical research include the determination of the structures of proteins and nucleic acids; studies of the physical features that determine macromolecular conformation; the analysis of macromolecular interactions and of ligand-macromolecular interactions; bioinformatics as it relates to protein and nucleic acid structure; the development of physical methodology for the analysis of molecular structure; and the development and use of theoretical methods to investigate biological systems. Other research interests include the development and refinement of instruments needed to conduct research in the areas described above. These include nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and other scattering techniques, optical spectroscopy and other forms of microscopy. This branch also supports the development of new bioanalytical methods and biomaterials.
Cell Biology Branch
This branch supports general studies on the molecular and biochemical activities of cells and subcellular components, as well as on the role of cellular dysfunction in disease. Emphasis is placed on research with applications to a range of cell types, model systems, or disease state, as well as research that does not fall within the disease-oriented mission of another NIH component. Representative studies include those on plasma and intracellular membranes, receptors, and signal transduction mechanisms; the structure and function of the cytoskeleton; cell motility; the regulation of protein and membrane synthesis and the activation of cell growth; subcellular organelles; cell division; and lipid biochemistry.
Structural Genomics and Proteomics Technology Branch
This branch supports studies that take a genomics or computational approach to determining protein structures and functions. Such research includes the development of high-throughput methods for protein structure determination, bioinformatics as it relates to the analysis of protein structures en masse, and the development of mass spectroscopy and other tools for the rapid analysis of biological molecules. The branch is responsible for monitoring the research centers and research grants associated with the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). This responsibility also includes developing a database of model structures and a repository for the distribution of materials resulting from the PSI.
Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology
The Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology supports studies directed toward gaining a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie inheritance and development. The results of these studies form the foundation for advances in diagnosing, preventing, treating, and curing human genetic and developmental disorders. Most of the projects supported by the division make use of model organisms, which speed advances in understanding human biological processes.
The division consists of the Genetic Mechanisms Branch and the Developmental and Cellular Processes Branch.
Genetic Mechanisms Branch
This branch focuses on DNA and on the flow of information from genetic material (DNA or RNA) to protein. The branch supports mechanistic studies of DNA replication and repair; synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein; regulation of DNA replication, transcription of coding and non-coding RNA, RNA processing and protein synthesis; and interactions among these basic cellular processes. The emphasis is on the general principles governing these processes rather than on the expression of specific genes in relation to organismal phenotypes or disease. Consistent with its focus on DNA, the branch also supports studies of population genetics and evolution.
Developmental and Cellular Processes Branch
This branch focuses on the genetic and biochemical pathways that cells utilize in development and in normal physiological processes. The research supported by the branch spans the spectrum from the genetic basis of development and cell function to biochemical signaling pathways that underlie normal cell physiology. The branch supports studies of cell cycle control; mechanisms of cell death; regulation of cell growth, differentiation and homeostasis; adaptive responses to stress; stem cell biology; microbial symbiotic relationships and community ecology; developmental genetics; neurogenetics and the genetics of behavior; chromosome structure and epigenetic regulation of gene expression; and the genetic basis of human biology.
Along with its research and research training activities, the division supports the Human Genetic Cell Repository, which maintains and distributes cell lines and DNA samples—from people with and without genetic disorders—to research scientists.
Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry
The Division of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry supports a broad spectrum of research and research training aimed at improving the molecular-level understanding of fundamental biological processes and discovering approaches to their control. Research supported by the division takes a multifaceted approach to problems in pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry, and biorelated chemistry that are either very basic in nature or that have implications for more than one disease area. The goals of supported research include an improved understanding of drug action and mechanisms of anesthesia; pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics and mechanisms underlying individual responses to drugs; new methods and targets for drug discovery; advances in natural products synthesis; an enhanced understanding of biological catalysis; a greater knowledge of metabolic regulation and fundamental physiological processes; and the integration and application of basic physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical research to clinical issues in anesthesia, clinical pharmacology, and trauma and burn injury. Among the division's leading areas of interest are quantitative and systems pharmacology, improved synthesis and availability of complex carbohydrates, and genomic studies of natural product biosynthesis. There are 2 components in this division: the Biochemistry and Biorelated Chemistry Branch and the Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences Branch.
Biochemistry and Biorelated Chemistry Branch
This branch supports basic research in areas of biochemistry, such as enzyme catalysis and regulation, bioenergetics and redox biochemistry, and glycoconjugates. It also supports research in areas of biorelated chemistry, such as organic synthesis and methodology, as well as bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry. Examples of biochemical investigations include studies of the chemical basis of the regulation and catalytic properties of enzymes, intermediary metabolism, the chemical and physical properties of the cellular systems for electron transport and energy transduction, and the biosynthesis and structure of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules. Examples of chemical investigations include the development of strategies for natural products synthesis, studies of the structure and function of small molecules, the chemistry of metal ions in biological systems, the development of novel medicinal agents or mimics of macromolecular function, and the creation of new synthetic methodologies. The branch also supports studies in biotechnology. This work focuses on the development of biological catalysts, including living organisms, for the production of useful chemical compounds, medicinal or diagnostic agents, or probes of biological phenomena.
Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences Branch
This branch supports research in pharmacology, anesthesiology, and the physiological sciences. Studies range from the molecular to the organismal level, and can be clinical in nature. In the pharmacological sciences and anesthesiology, important areas being studied are the effects of drugs on the body and the body's effects on drugs, as well as how these effects vary from individual to individual. This includes traditional investigations of the absorption, transport, distribution, metabolism, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs, as well as drug delivery strategies and determinants of bioavailability. It also includes a newer focus on pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, linking phenotype to genotype in drug action. Understanding the mechanisms of drug interactions with receptors and signal transduction mechanisms is another major focus of this section. This includes studies of soluble and membrane-bound receptors and channels, secondary and tertiary messenger systems, mediator molecules, and their regulation and pharmacological manipulation. Examples of studies in the physiological sciences include basic and clinical investigations directed toward improving understanding of the total body response to injury, including the biochemical and physiological changes induced by trauma. Research supported in this section includes studies on the etiology of post-traumatic sepsis and the mechanisms of immunosuppression, wound healing, and hypermetabolism following injury. This section also supports research in basic molecular immunobiology, which focuses on using cells of the immune system to study fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity
The Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity (TWD) supports programs that foster research training and the development of a strong and diverse biomedical research workforce. The division funds research training, career development, diversity and capacity-building activities through a variety of programs at the undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral, faculty and institutional levels.
Undergraduate and Predoctoral Training
TWD supports innovative programs aimed at developing the capabilities of institutions to train undergraduate and predoctoral students, including those from populations that have traditionally been underrepresented in the biomedical and behavioral research workforce.
TWD supports research, research training, fellowship, career development and research education grants. In addition, the division supports supplements to research grants that promote diversity of the biomedical and behavioral research workforce by providing research experiences for students and fellows at all levels from high school through postdoctoral training.
The division offers a number of programs aimed at increasing the research capabilities of institutions and the research competitiveness of faculty at institutions with substantial enrollments of students from underrepresented groups and those that have historically not received significant levels of research funding from NIH.
Division of Extramural Activities
The Division of Extramural Activities is responsible for the grant-related activities of the Institute, including the receipt, referral, and advisory council review of applications as well as grant funding and management. It maintains an overview of the Institute's scientific and financial status and advises the NIGMS director and other key staff on policy matters and on the planning, development, and scientific administration of Institute research and training programs. The division recommends budget allocations for the various NIGMS programs. It also acts as a liaison with other NIH components for activities relating to grant application assignments and foreign grants.