The NIH Almanac
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.
Following is a brief description of the major areas of investigation.
- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). NIAID conducts and supports research on all areas of HIV infection, including developing and testing preventive HIV vaccines, biomedical prevention strategies, and innovative strategies for treating or curing HIV infection and related co-infections and co-morbidities. Since the beginning of the epidemic, NIAID's comprehensive research program has been at the forefront in the fight against HIV/AIDS. NIAID supports a broad array of domestic and international HIV/AIDS research programs and collaborates with more than 7 0 countries through investigator-initiated research grants and multicenter vaccine, therapeutics, microbicide, and prevention clinical research networks. With a number of research programs and initiatives, NIAID is poised to tackle new global research challenges as well as the changing demographics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
- Asthma and Allergic Diseases. NIAID supports programs to examine the causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Examples of such programs include the Inner-City Asthma Consortium, the Consortium of Food Allergy Research, the Atopic Dermatitis Research Network and the Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Centers. NIAID operates a pediatric allergy clinic at the NIH Clinical Center that serves as a focal point for translational research conducted in collaboration with NIAID intramural laboratories and clinical trials of novel therapies. In addition, NIAID is the lead agency within HHS for research on food allergies.
- Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures. NIAID has developed a robust program to accelerate the research and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs) for the Strategic National Stockpile. The NIAID program supports early- to mid-stage research and development to develop medical products that can diagnose, mitigate, or treat injuries that can result from radiation exposure from a public health emergency incident. NIAID-sponsored activities focus on MCMs and biodosimetry devices to be used in mass casualty radiation/nuclear. The research priority areas of the program are to develop the following: drugs or biologics that can mitigate and/or treat radiation injury when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure, drugs that can remove internally contaminated radioactive materials from the body, and biodosimetry methods or devices that can rapidly and accurately distinguish people who have been exposed to radiation.
- Biodefense and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. NIAID research provides the foundation for developing medical products and strategies to diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately introduced as an act of bioterrorism. Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, NIAID has vastly expanded its portfolio in biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. This research targets pathogens that pose high risks to public health and national security. NIAID conducts and supports research on basic microbiology of and host response to these pathogens as well as development of medical countermeasures. These countermeasures include (1) rapid, accurate diagnostics for natural and bioengineered microbes; (2) effective treatments such as antimicrobials, antitoxins, and immunotherapeutics; and (3) prophylactic and post-exposure vaccines. NIAID also supports biodefense and emerging infectious disease research through training programs and enhancement of research infrastructure and capacity, and by providing needed research resources and reagents to the scientific community.
- Enteric Diseases. The global burden of enteric disease is second only to respiratory infection as a cause of sickness and death. Enteric diseases range from persistent, low-grade infections to severe, acute epidemic cholera. An additional burden of disease occurs because enteric infection greatly exacerbates the pathogenicity of diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. Multi-drug resistance is a major problem, making Salmonella, Clostridium difficile, and cholera particularly difficult to treat in the settings where it is most likely to develop a fatal outcome. One of the most severe enteric infections is cholera, the most rapidly killing bacterial disease. NIAID has been involved in many of the most important advances against cholera and other enteric diseases, including supporting the development of oral rehydration therapy, considered to be one of the most important medical advances of the 20th century. Presently, NIAID supports a robust research program of basic and applied research investigating how enteric pathogens cause illness, and developing appropriate diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics to prevent infection and to treat patients.
- Fundamental Immunology. Through both a robust intramural program and investigator-initiated grants and solicited research programs, NIAID supports a strong program to understand basic immune mechanisms, conduct immune profiling, or identify/characterize novel immune cell subsets, pathways, phenomenon, or mechanisms. Examples of NIAID-supported programs include the Human Immunology Profiling Consortium, the Immune Epitope Database, the Immune Mechanisms of Virus Control Program, and Modeling Immunity for Biodefense. NIAID-supported research has yielded a wealth of new information leading to extraordinary growth in the conceptual understanding of the immune system.
- Transplantation. NIAID supports research that focuses on understanding the role the immune system plays in the success or failure of transplanted cells, tissues, and organs. Researchers are studying ways to selectively control or eliminate unwanted immune responses with the ultimate goal of enhancing long-term transplant survival. Examples of NIAID-supported programs in transplantation include Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation, Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children, Clinical Trials in Islet Transplantation, and the Immune Tolerance Network.
- Immune-Mediated Diseases. NIAID conducts and supports basic, preclinical, and clinical research on immune-mediated diseases, autoimmune disorders, primary immunodeficiency diseases, and the rejection of transplanted organs, tissues, and cells. Efforts are underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of disease-modifying and tolerance induction strategies for treating immune-mediated diseases, as well as clinical trials to assess the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for treating severe autoimmune disorders. Programs include the Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence, the Immune Tolerance Network (http://immunetolerance.org), Autoimmune Diseases Prevention Centers, Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation, the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (http://www.rarediseasesnetwork.org/pidtc/), the Primary Immunodeficiency Deficiency Clinic (http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immunedeficiency/pidclinic), the Clinical Islet Transplantation Consortium and the U.S. Immunodeficiency Network (http://www.usidnet.org). NIAID chairs the NIH Autoimmune Diseases Coordinating Committee (ADCC).
- Malaria and Other Tropical Diseases. Each year, millions of people worldwide are disabled or killed by tropical diseases such as malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis (e.g., Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness), leprosy, and dengue. NIAID supports and conducts basic research on the microbes and parasites that cause tropical diseases, as well as the interactions of these organisms with their human hosts and with animal/invertebrate vectors involved in disease transmission. NIAID also supports and conducts translational and clinical research to develop new and improved diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector management strategies for tropical diseases. These efforts are conducted by U.S. and international investigators receiving Institute support and by NIAID intramural scientists and their collaborators around the world. In addition, the International Centers for Excellence in Research (ICER) program promotes and sustains research programs in developing countries through partnerships with local scientists. The current ICER sites are located in Mali, India, and Uganda. While the ICER program is focused on clinical research in infectious diseases such as malaria and filariasis, each center has the capability to address the research and training needs of greatest relevance to the local population. Clinical research on tropical diseases is largely dependent upon access to populations of patients, vectors, and pathogens/parasites in countries where these diseases are endemic; thus, an important complementary objective of NIAID's program is to strengthen international research capacity through research resources and support, scientific collaborations, and research training. In addition, NIAID supports the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMRs). This program establishes a global network of independent research centers in malaria-endemic settings to provide knowledge, tools, and evidence-based strategies to support researchers working in a variety of settings, especially within governments and healthcare institutions.
- Influenza. NIAID has supported a comprehensive research program on influenza infections for many years. In response to the emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and the persistent threat of pandemic influenza, NIAID greatly expanded its influenza program. A broad range of research activities are supported through the intramural program, individual grants and contracts, collaborations with industry partners and investigators in several research networks, including the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs) for the clinical evaluation of candidate products . NIAID intramural researchers conduct cutting edge, comprehensive research on influenza, including its pathogenesis, immunogenicity, transmissibility and genetic variability; investigating host immune responses to the virus in animal models and in humans; developing vaccines to prevent influenza, especially strains with pandemic potential; and studying influenza epidemiology. NIAID investigators recently completed the first human volunteer influenza virus challenge study performed in the U.S. in over a decade. This work provides a critical foundation for vaccine and therapeutics development. NIAID also supports the Centers of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network. This program conducts animal influenza surveillance domestically and internationally and focuses on basic research to enhance our understanding of influenza pathogenesis, transmission, evolution, and host response. NIAID also supports activities to develop the next generation of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics and antivirals. NIAID resources and services are available to support early stage development of new vaccine and therapeutic candidates to help advance them through the product development pipeline. Ongoing projects include research to develop a "common epitope" influenza vaccine and therapeutics that protect against all medically important influenza strains; systems biology approaches to identify host factors required for influenza infection to expand the number of potential targets for new drug development; and clinical research.
- Genomics and Advanced Technologies. Research fields such as genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics hold great promise for developing new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines to treat and prevent infectious and immune-mediated diseases. NIAID has made a significant commitment to support and encourage advanced technologies research in Institute labs and in the scientific community. Sophisticated tools are being used to determine the genetic make-up of disease-causing pathogens, to analyze discrepancies among pathogen strains, and to evaluate how immune system responses differ. In addition, data generated through NIAID-supported initiatives is being made rapidly available to the research community. The ultimate goal of the NIAID genomics and advanced technologies program is to allow researchers to use these data to further pursue new discoveries about the causes, treatment, and ultimate prevention of infectious and immune-mediated diseases.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). More than 15 million Americans each year acquire infectious diseases other than AIDS through sexual contact. STDs such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus can have devastating consequences, particularly for young adults, pregnant women, and newborn babies. NIAID-supported scientists in STD Cooperative Research Centers, NIAID intramural laboratories, and other research institutions are developing better diagnostic tests, improved treatments, and effective vaccines for STDs.
- Vaccine Development. Effective vaccines have contributed enormously to improvements in public health in the United States and worldwide during the last century. Research conducted and supported by NIAID has led to new or improved vaccines for a variety of serious diseases, including rabies, meningitis, whooping cough, hepatitis A and B, chickenpox, and pneumococcal pneumonia, to name a few. NIAID supports the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs) for the clinical testing of new vaccines and vaccine technologies at a number of U.S. medical centers. Many vaccines are currently under development in NIAID intramural labs, including vaccines to prevent AIDS, pandemic influenza, childhood respiratory diseases, dengue, and malaria.
- Adjuvant Discovery and Development. There is a critical need for the identification and characterization of novel adjuvants to boost immunity and increase the efficacy of new or existing vaccines. NIAID supports a robust adjuvant program in both discovery and development with the ultimate goal of advancing candidate adjuvants towards licensure for human use.
- Drug Research and Development. The development of therapies to treat infectious and immunologic diseases is a key component of NIAID's mission. In collaboration with industry, academia, non-profits, and other government agencies, NIAID has established research programs to facilitate drug development, including screening programs to identify compounds with potential for use as therapeutic agents, facilities to conduct preclinical testing of promising drugs, and clinical trials networks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs and therapeutic strategies in humans.
- Antimicrobial Resistance. NIAID funds and conducts comprehensive research to study antimicrobial resistance in major viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Projects include basic research on the disease-causing mechanisms of pathogens, host-pathogen interactions, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for drug resistance, as well as translational research to develop and evaluate new or improved products for disease diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. NIAID supports clinical trials that assess new and existing antimicrobials and new vaccines relevant to drug-resistant infections through cutting edge intramural research and clinical trial facilities, NIAID-targeted initiatives and clinical trial networks, which include the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Groups, the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units, and the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). Established in 2013, the ARLG develops, designs, implements, and manages a clinical research agenda to increase knowledge of antibacterial resistance. The ARLG aims to advance research by building transformational trials that will change clinical practice and reduce the impact of antibacterial resistance.
- Minority and Women's Health. Some of the diseases studied by NIAID disproportionately affect women and minority populations. The Institute remains committed to the inclusion of minorities and women in every aspect of its scientific agenda, from recruitment of special populations into clinical studies to the conduct of biomedical research by minority and women researchers. NIAID's Division of Extramural Activities sponsors activities aimed at eliminating the continuing health disparities among these populations. Through the Division's efforts, activities are developed to encourage scientific advances in sex and gender differences research, and to encourage research training of investigators who focus on the health of women and girls, and to stimulate the training and development of researchers from populations that are historically underrepresented in biomedical research in the U.S. The Division also develops innovative training initiatives to increase the number of scientists from diverse backgrounds by supporting undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate research training in immunologic and infectious diseases. NIAID research results are disseminated to diverse underserved communities through the Institute's outreach activities, which have focused on HIV/AIDS, asthma, sexually transmitted diseases , and autoimmune diseases.
Important Events in NIAID History
1948 — The National Microbiological Institute was established November 1. The Rocky Mountain Laboratory and the Biologics Control Laboratory, both dating to 1902, were incorporated into the new institute, together with the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Division of Tropical Diseases of NIH.
1951 — An institute-supported grants program was initiated, and a branch was established to administer research, training, and fellowship grants. Grant applications were reviewed by the National Advisory Health Council until 1956.
1953 — The Clinical Research Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation.
1955 — The National Microbiological Institute became the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases on December 29. The Biologics Control Laboratory was detached from the institute and expanded to division status within NIH.
1956 — The first meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council was held March 7-8.
1957 — The Laboratory of Immunology was established in January to meet the growing need for research on the mechanisms of allergy and immunology.
The Middle America Research Unit was established in the Canal Zone jointly by NIAID and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research as a temporary field station, made permanent in 1961. Important tropical diseases studies were done there for 15 years. NIAID transferred its part of the program to the Gorgas Memorial Institute in 1972.
1959 — The Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases was established, formerly a part of the Division of Tropical Diseases.
1962 — A collaborative research program funded mainly by contracts was established within the institute to plan, coordinate, and direct nationwide projects on infectious diseases, vaccine development, transplantation immunology, research reagents, and antiviral substances.
1967 — The Laboratory of Viral Diseases was established.
1968 — With the dissolution of NIH's Office of International Research (OIR) and creation of the Fogarty International Center on July 1, 1968, programs formerly managed by OIR were transferred to NIAID to be administered by the Geographic Medicine Branch. These included the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program — initiated in 1965 by the President and the Japanese Prime Minister to explore the health problems of Asia — and the International Centers for Medical Research and Training, a 1960 congressional initiative to advance the status of U.S. health sciences through international research.
1971 — The first 7 Allergic Disease Centers were established to translate basic concepts of the biomedical sciences into clinical investigations.
1974 — The first centers for the study of sexually transmitted diseases and of influenza were established.
1977 — The NIAID Extramural Research Program was reorganized into 3 areas: Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Immunology, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases; and Extramural Activities. An intramural Laboratory of Immunogenetics was formed.
1978 — The first maximum containment facility (P4) for recombinant DNA research was opened in Frederick, Md. International program project grants and international exploratory/development research grants programs were established. Centers were created for interdisciplinary research on immunologic diseases.
1979 — The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities was transferred from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences to NIAID. The International Collaboration in Infectious Diseases Research Program superseded the International Centers for Medical Research and Training established in 1960.
The Rocky Mountain Laboratory was reorganized into the Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, to deal with both host and viral mechanisms leading to slow or persistent viral infections; the Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function, directed at bacterial diseases, particularly sexually transmitted diseases; and an Epidemiology Branch.
1980 — The Laboratory of Immunoregulation was established to provide a means for applying new knowledge in immunology to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with immunological disorders.
1981 — The Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology was created to exploit new techniques in recombinant DNA methodology and other molecular studies to expand the institute's interests in both bacterial and viral pathogenesis and virulence.
1984 — The Office of Tropical Medicine and International Research (OTMIR) was established to coordinate NIAID's intramural and extramural research activities in tropical medicine and other international research. OTMIR works with other Federal agencies and international organizations active in these areas.
1985 — The Laboratory of Immunopathology was established. At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the Epidemiology Branch was renamed the Laboratory of Pathology.
1986 — An Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program was established in January to coordinate the institute's extramural research efforts in HIV/AIDS.
1987 — The Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology was established.
1988 — The Immunology, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases Program was reorganized and renamed the Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Program.
The Office of Recombinant DNA Activities transferred from NIAID to the NIH Office of the Director.
1989 — NIAID's programs became divisions: Intramural Research; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; and Extramural Activities.
1990 — At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a section of the Laboratory of Microbial Structure and Function became the Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites. The name of the Laboratory of Pathobiology was changed to the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens.
1991 — The Laboratory of Host Defenses was established.
1994 — The Laboratory of Allergic Diseases was established.
The Office of Research on Minority and Women's Health was created.
At Rocky Mountain Laboratories, the Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens was renamed the Microscopy Branch.
1999 — The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center was launched — a research program jointly funded by NIAID, NCI, and the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
2000 — The Children's Health Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-310) codified the NIH Autoimmune Diseases Coordinating Committee in law. ADCC is chaired by NIAID.
2001 — Malaria Vaccine Development Unit was dedicated.
2002 — Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases was reorganized; Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research was established.
The Office of Biodefense Research Affairs was established within the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) to coordinate the planning, implementation, and evaluation of DMID-wide biodefense research.
NIAID awarded its first Partnership grants to support collaboration between private industry, academia, and government to accomplish critical infectious disease and biodefense research goals.
2003 — NIAID established an intellectual and physical infrastructure for biodefense research through awards to support National and Regional Biocontainment Laboratories (NBLs and RBLs) and Regional Centers of Excellence (RCEs) for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
2004 — The Laboratory of Molecular Immunology was established.
2005 — The Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens was established.
The Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases was established.
NIAID made its first awards using authorities granted under Project Bioshield legislation to support development of new therapeutics and vaccines against some of the most deadly agents of bioterrorism including anthrax, botulinum toxin, Ebola virus, pneumonic plague, smallpox, and tularemia.
2006 — The Division of Clinical Research was established.
The Laboratory of Virology was established.
The C.W. Bill Young Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (Building 33) was launched to carry out NIAID's mission in emerging infectious disease research, including the development of medical countermeasures for biodefense.
2008 — The Integrated Research Facility (IRF) at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a state-of-the-art research facility for the study of infectious microbes in high and maximum containment environments, opened. The building employs the highest possible safety standards to protect scientists and the surrounding community.
2014 — The IRF at Fort Detrick in Maryland was completed. With a research emphasis placed on high consequence infections requiring high levels of biocontainment, this facility carries out biodefense research needed to understand the clinical disease processes which correlate with the severity of microbial-induced disease.
NIAID Legislative Chronology
November 1, 1948 — The National Microbiological Institute was established under authority of section 202 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, as implemented by General Circular No. 55, Organization Order No. 20, dated October 8, 1948.
December 29, 1955 — NIAID was established (replacing the National Microbiological Institute) under authority of the Omnibus Medical Research Act (P.L. 81-692, 64 Stat. L. 443) as implemented by PHS Briefing Memorandum of November 4, 1955, from the Surgeon General to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
November 4, 1988 — NIAID was provided with additional authorities under title II of the Health Omnibus Programs Extension Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-607), the first major law to address AIDS research, information, education, and prevention.
August 14, 1991 — The PHS act (P.L. 102-96), the "Terry Beirn Community Based AIDS Research Initiative Act of 1991" reauthorized NIAID's Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) for another 5 years.
June 10, 1993 — The PHS act was amended by P.L. 103-43, the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993. This comprehensive legislation required NIAID to include research on tropical diseases in its mission statement and directed the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to ensure that individuals with expertise in chronic fatigue syndrome or neuromuscular diseases are appointed to appropriate NIH advisory committees.
December 14, 1993 — The Preventive Health Amendments of 1993 were passed, which included provisions requiring the Director of NIAID to conduct or support research and research training regarding the cause, early detection, prevention, and treatment of tuberculosis. (The institute already had authority to conduct such research under its authorities in Title IV, PHS act.)
October 7, 1998 — Rep. Anne Northup (Ky.), on behalf of herself and Rep. Bill Young (Fla.), introduced H.C.R. 335, a resolution recognizing NIAID's 50th anniversary. On October 9, Sen. Richard Durbin (Ill.), on behalf of himself and Sen. Connie Mack (Fla.), introduced a companion measure, S.C.R. 127. Both pieces of legislation were submitted to "demonstrate the support of the U.S. Congress for the NIAID, the NIH and all of the dedicated professionals who have devoted their lives to improving the quality of the Nation's health."
October 17, 2000 — The Children's Health Act (P.L. 106-310) required the Directors of NIAID and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases to expand and intensify the activities of their Institutes with respect to research and related activities concerning juvenile arthritis and related conditions.
November 13, 2000 — The Public Health Improvement Act (P.L. 106-505) authorized the NIAID Director to establish a program of clinical research and training awards for sexually transmitted diseases.
July 21, 2004 — The Project BioShield Act (P.L. 108-276) authorized the NIAID Director to provide grants for the modernization and construction of biomedical and behavioral research facilities and increased the Federal share of such NIAID-funded projects. The law also authorized the HHS Secretary to employ other procedures to respond to pressing needs in the research and development of countermeasures against biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear threats, including expediting peer review procedures in certain instances, contracting with experts or consultants, and appointing professional and technical employees to positions at NIH.
July 30, 2008 — The Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-293) authorized the NIAID Director, acting through the head of the Division of AIDS and in accordance with the NIH peer-review process, to carry out research on, and development of, safe and effective methods for use by women to prevent the transmission of HIV, which may include microbicides.
Biographical Sketch of NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.
Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director of NIAID since 1984, oversees an extensive research portfolio devoted to preventing, diagnosing, and treating infectious and immune-mediated diseases. He received his medical degree from Cornell University Medical College and completed his internship and residency at The New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center. Dr. Fauci joined NIAID in 1968 as a clinical associate in the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation. In 1980, he became Chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, a post he continues to hold. Dr. Fauci serves as one of the key advisors to the White House and Department of Health and Human Services on global HIV/AIDS issues, and on initiatives to bolster medical and public health preparedness against emerging infectious disease threats such as pandemic influenza. He was one of the principal architects of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which has helped save millions of lives throughout the developing world.
Dr. Fauci has made many contributions to basic and clinical research on the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated and infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. He has received 38 honorary doctorate degrees from universities in the United States and abroad, as well as the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the National Medal of Science, the Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service, the Robert Koch Medal, and other major awards. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and many other professional organizations, Dr. Fauci is the author, coauthor, or editor of more than 1,200 scientific publications, including several textbooks.
Directors of NIAID
|Name||In Office from||To|
|Victor H. Haas||November 1, 1948||April 1957|
|Justin M. Andrews||April 1957||October 1, 1964|
|Dorland J. Davis||October 1, 1964||August 1975|
|Richard M. Krause||August 1975||July 1984|
|Anthony S. Fauci||November 1984||Present|
NIAID is composed of 7 research divisions: the Division of AIDS; the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation; the Division of Clinical Research; the Division of Extramural Activities; the Division of Intramural Research; the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; and the Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center. NIAID scientists conduct intramural research in laboratories located in Bethesda, Rockville, and Frederick, Maryland, and in Hamilton, Montana. More information on NIAID programs, committees, and initiatives can be found on NIAID's web site at www.niaid.nih.gov.
Division of AIDS
The Division of AIDS (DAIDS) was formed in 1986 to develop and implement the national research agenda to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Toward that end, the Division supports a global research portfolio on HIV/AIDS, its related co-infections, and co-morbidities. With the ultimate goal of creating an “AIDS-free Generation,” the Division continually develops and supports the research infrastructure and scientific expertise needed to enable innovative approaches aimed at: 1) halting the spread of HIV through effective and acceptable prevention strategies and a preventive vaccine; 2) treating and curing HIV infection; 3) establishing treatment and prevention strategies for the HIV co-infections and co-morbidities of greatest significance; and 4) partnering with scientific and community stakeholders to implement effective interventions. Carl W. Diffenbach, Ph.D. Director.
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation
The mission of the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT) spans the acquisition of knowledge on the function of the immune system, and development of effective approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, including asthma and allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders, primary immunodeficiency diseases, and rejection of transplanted organs, tissues, and cells. To achieve this goal, DAIT promotes and supports basic research to increase understanding of the development and function of the immune system, the mechanisms of protective immunity, and the causes and mechanisms that lead to the development of immunologic diseases. DAIT’s clinical research activities apply this knowledge to the development and evaluation of new tolerogenic and immunomodulatory approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of immune-mediated diseases and transplant rejection. Daniel Rotrosen, M.D., Director.
Division of Clinical Research
The Division of Clinical Research (DCR) plays an integral role in facilitating the efficient and effective performance of NIAID research programs on both the domestic and the international level. This is accomplished through a multi-faceted approach to the provision and support of services vital to the research infrastructure that include oversight and management of intramural clinical research, program planning and management, regulatory monitoring and compliance, statistical consultation and research methodology, and clinical research capacity building. H. Clifford Lane, M.D., Director.
Division of Extramural Activities
The Division of Extramural Activities (DEA) serves NIAID's extramural research community and the Institute in several key areas: overseeing policy and management for grants and contracts; managing NIAID's research training, small business, and international programs; and conducting initial peer review for funding mechanisms with Institute-specific needs. In addition to providing broad policy guidance to Institute management, DEA also oversees all of NIAID's chartered committees, including the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; disseminates information to its extramural community through its large Internet site; and develops extramural staff training and communications through the NIAID intranet. Matthew Fenton, Ph.D., Director.
Division of Intramural Research
The Division of Intramural Research (DIR) is composed of 21 laboratories and 3 branches that conduct biomedical research programs covering a wide range of disciplines relating to immunology, allergy, and infectious diseases. This includes the subdisciplines of virology, microbiology, biochemistry, parasitology, epidemiology, mycology, molecular biology, immunology, immunopathology, and immunogenetics. In addition, DIR supports a large clinical effort to conduct patient-centered research in allergy, immunology, and infectious diseases. Kathryn C. Zoon, Ph.D., Director.
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
The Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) supports extramural research to control and prevent diseases caused by virtually all human infectious agents except HIV. DMID’s portfolio includes a wide variety of projects on bacterial, viral, parasitic, and prion diseases. DMID-supported research spans the spectrum from basic biology of human pathogens and their interaction with human hosts, through translational and clinical research toward the development of new and improved diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines for infectious diseases. DMID supports basic research on organisms on the NIAID Category A to C list of priority pathogens for biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, as well as translational and clinical research to develop medical countermeasures for diseases caused by these agents. Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D., Director.
Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center
While the core research focus of the VRC remains the development of an effective vaccine for prevention of HIV-1/AIDS, VRC capabilities informed by its work on HIV have led to significant contributions to vaccine development for other high-burden diseases such as influenza, RSV and malaria, as well as for biodefense threats and emerging infectious diseases including Ebola, Chikungunya, alphavirus encephalitides, SARS, and MERS. The VRC’s programmatic framework encompasses basic bench research, antigen discovery, comprehensive immune assessment, vaccine production capability, and conduct of clinical trials. The technology advances of the VRC in numerous areas, including antigen discovery, vaccine vector development, modulation and measurement of immunity, adjuvant use, manufacturing optimization, pre-clinical testing, efficient regulatory and clinical evaluation, and analysis of human immune responses, all have translated into opportunities for associated advances in immune modulator discovery, development, and implementation for other diseases.
VRC Programmatic Cores include: Virology and Humoral Immunology Cores (translation of basic scientific knowledge into vaccine or other immune modulator products for clinical studies); Immunology and Flow Cytometry Cores (definition and quantification of immunological responses; studying correlates of immunity, development of reagents, and optimization of assays for both human and NHP studies); Genome Analysis Core (bioinformatics; advanced sequencing technologies); Structural Biology and Bioinformatics Cores (application of advanced technologies and atomic-level information to design vaccines and other immune modulators); Translational Research Cores (animal models; preclinical testing in NHP, including mucosal sampling and processing); Vaccine Production Program (process development and manufacture of controlled quality materials for human clinical studies); and Clinical Trials Program (clinical trial protocol development; study design and analysis; maintenance of regulatory standards; and screening/recruitment of healthy adults into clinical trials). John R. Mascola, M.D., Director.