The NIH Almanac
National Eye Institute
The National Eye Institute (NEI) conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems of individuals who are visually impaired or blind.
Vision research is supported by the NEI through research grants and training awards made to scientists at more than 250 medical centers, hospitals, universities, and other institutions across the country and around the world. The NEI also conducts laboratory and patient-oriented research at its own facilities located on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland.
The NEI has established the National Eye Health Education Program, a partnership of more than 65 professional, civic, and voluntary organizations and government agencies concerned with eye health. The program represents an extension of the NEI's support of vision research, where results are disseminated to health professionals, patients, and the public.
Important Events in NEI History
August 16, 1968—National Eye Institute was established when President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Public Law 90-489. The new NIH institute was the first government organization solely dedicated to research on human visual diseases and disorders. NEI officially began operations on December 26, 1968, and the National Advisory Eye Council met for the first time on April 3, 1969.
April 3-4, 1969—First meeting of the NEI National Advisory Eye Council is held.
January 11, 1970—Dr. Carl Kupfer was appointed NEI Director.
December 15, 1970—Reorganization of the NEI resulted in the formation of an Office of Biometry and Epidemiology; an Office of the Director of Intramural Research; the Laboratory of Vision Research; and a Clinical Branch.
April 1975—Publication of the National Advisory Eye Council's report, Vision Research Program Planning, was the first comprehensive assessment of major needs and opportunities in vision research in the United States.
April 1,1976—Results from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study proved that laser treatment is effective for treating diabetic retinopathy.
April 1978—Publication of the National Advisory Eye Council's 5-year plan, Vision Research: 1978-1982, which included review and analysis of vision research and research training in the United States and discussion of future priorities.
September 1978—The Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research was established within the intramural research program.
June 1981—The Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology was established within the intramural research program.
May 1983—The National Advisory Eye Council's second 5-year plan, Vision Research—A National Plan 1983-1987, recommended future NEI programs.
July 19, 1984—The Office of Biometry and Epidemiology was transferred out of the Office of the Director and established as the Biometry and Epidemiology Program ; now Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications.
August 1985—An Intramural Research Program reorganization of the Laboratory of Vision Research created the Laboratories of Mechanisms of Ocular Diseases; Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology; and Immunology.
1987—The National Advisory Eye Council's Vision Research—A National Plan 1983-1987, and 1987 Evaluation and Update, discussed accomplishments since the 1983-87 plan was published, evaluated the status of NEI-supported research activities, and revised priorities for the next 2 years.
December 1987—The Collaborative Clinical Vision Research Branch was established to provide overall scientific management and administration for NEI grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements supporting clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.
March 1988—Results from the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study proved that freeze treatment reduces blindness in premature infants.
February 1989—The Office of International Program Activities was created to enhance coordination of NEI's international activities, particularly those relating to cooperation with nongovernmental organizations, international agencies, and the international components of other Federal agencies.
October 1989—Results from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study provided further evidence that laser treatment is highly effective in treating diabetic retinopathy.
December 1989—Results from the Fluorouracil Filtering Surgery Study proved that fluorouracil improves glaucoma surgery outcome.
February 10, 1990—The Ophthalmic Genetics and Clinical Services Branch (now Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch) was established in the intramural program.
December 1990—Results from the Glaucoma Laser Trial proved that laser therapy shows promise as an alternative to glaucoma drugs.
October 1991—Results from the Foscarnet and Ganciclovir Study showed that patients with AIDS treated for cytomegalovirus retinitis with foscarnet lived longer than those who received the standard treatment of ganciclovir.
December 1991—The NEI established the National Eye Health Education Program, following Congressional encouragement that NEI increase its commitment to the prevention of blindness through public and professional education programs that encourage early detection and timely treatment of glaucoma and diabetic eye disease.
February 1992—Results from the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial proved that oral corticosteroids alone were found ineffective for optic neuritis.
October 1992—Results from the Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Study proved that patient donor blood type matching improves corneal transplantation outcome.
March 1993—The Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study 5-year follow-up showed that current treatment for diabetic retinopathy is 95 percent effective in maintaining vision.
Spring 1993–Spring 1995—A "Celebration of Vision Research" commemorated the NEI's 25th anniversary.
June 1993—The NEI and its advisory body, the National Advisory Eye Council, produced and distributed its fifth long-range plan, Vision Research—A National Plan: 1994-1998, that contained policy recommendations and scientific program priorities.
June 1993—Results from the Retinitis Pigmentosa Study reported most adults with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) should take a daily 15,000 IU vitamin A palmitate supplement.
December 1993—The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial found that corticosteroids for optic neuritis lowers risk of developing multiple sclerosis.
October 1994—Ten-year results released from the Radial Keratotomy (RK) Study found that RK remained a reasonably safe and effective technique to improve distance vision.
December 1994—Results from the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis Study reported that a new drug-releasing device was effective in treating CMV retinitis in people with AIDS.
February 1995—The Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial was haulted when results found eye surgery was ineffective for optic neuropathy and may be harmful.
October 1995—Results from the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study found that vitrectomy surgery is not necessary for three-fourths of patients who develop an intraocular bacterial infection called endophthalmitis.
December 1995—Seven year follow up results from the Glaucoma Laser Trial found that laser therapy is a safe and effective alternative to eye drops as a first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma.
January 1996—Results from the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis Retreatment Trial found that a combination of two antiviral drugs is more effective than either drug alone for controlling recurrences of CMV retinitis in people with AIDS.
April 1996—Five and a half year follow up results from the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study confirmed that cryotherapy applied to the eyes of premature babies helps save their sight.
August 1996—The Monoclonal Antibody Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Trial was stopped when the drug, MSL 109 did not slow the progression of CMV retinitis.
May 1997—Results from a clinical trial found that a combination of protease inhibitors and other anti-HIV drugs used to treat people with AIDS can prevent or delay the progression of CMV retinitis.
May 1998—Results from the Effects of Light Reduction on Retinopathy of Prematurity have determined that light reduction has no effect on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in low birth weight infants.
June 1998—Results from the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study found that the survival rates for two alternative treatments for primary eye cancer—radiation therapy and removal of the eye—are about the same.
June 1998—The NEI and National Advisory Eye Council produced and distributed Vision Research—A National Plan: 1999-2003, that contained policy recommendations and scientific program priorities. In developing this five-year plan, the NEI and and its advisory council assembled panels of over 100 experts representing each of NEI's formal programs and special interest areas. In drafting this plan, special consideration was given to the purpose, intent, and requirements of the Government Performance and Review Act.
July 1998—Results from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study found that blacks with advanced glaucoma benefit more from a regimen that begins with laser surgery and whites benefit more from one that begins with an operation called a trabeculectomy.
July 1998—Results from the Herpetic Eye Disease Study found that an antiviral drug, often used to suppress genital herpes, also decreases the recurrence of herpes of the eye.
October 19, 1999—The NEI launched the Low Vision Education Program, part of the National Eye Health Education Program.
2000—The NEI was designated the lead agency for a new focus area on vision in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 initiative.
February 2000—Researchers found that modest supplemental oxygen given to premature infants with moderate cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may not significantly improve ROP, but definitely does not make it worse.
July 15, 2000—Carl Kupfer, M.D., stepped aside after 30 years as Director of the NEI. Jack A. McLaughlin, Ph.D., is named Acting Director, NEI.
June 17, 2001—Paul A. Sieving , M.D., Ph.D., assumes duties as Director, NEI.
October 12, 2001—Results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) found high levels of antioxidants and zinc significantly reduce the risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its associated vision loss.
February 14, 2002—100th meeting of the National Advisory Eye Council was held.
March 2002—Results from the Amblyopia Treatment Study found that atropine eye drops given once a day to treat amblyopia, or lazy eye, work as well as the standard treatment of patching one eye.
June 2002—Results from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study discovered that eye drops used to treat elevated pressure inside the eye can be effective in delaying the onset of glaucoma.
October 2002—Results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial found that immediately treating people who have early stage glaucoma can delay progression of the disease.
May 2003—Researchers found that patching the unaffected eye of children with moderate amblyopia for two hours daily works as well as patching the eye for six hours.
October 2003—The NEI published and released its National Plan for Eye and Vision Research. The first strategic plan produced through the new, two-phase planning process. This ongoing planning process involves the assessment of important areas in eye and vision research and the development of new goals and objectives that address outstanding needs and opportunities for additional progress. Workshops, conferences, or symposia in critical or emerging areas of science are conducted during the second phase of the planning process to explore how they might be applied to diseases of the eye and disorders of vision.
December 2003—Results from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Study demonstrated that premature infants, who are at the highest risk for developing vision loss from retinopathy of prematurity, will retain better vision when therapy is administered in the early stage of the disease.
June 2004—In a follow up study from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, researchers reported eye drops that reduce elevated pressure inside the eye can delay or possibly prevent the onset of glaucoma in African Americans at higher risk for developing the disease.
August 2004—Results from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study, the largest, most comprehensive epidemiological analysis of visual impairment in Latinos conducted in the U.S., found that Latinos had high rates of eye disease and visual impairment.
November 2004—Results from the Submacular Surgery Trials indicated that vision does not improve substantially for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who underwent surgery to remove lesions of new blood vessels, scar tissue, or possible bleeding beneath the retina.
March 2005—Results from four studies identified a gene that is strongly associated with a personís risk for developing age-related macular degeneration.
April 2005—Researchers show that many children age seven through 17 with amblyopia (lazy eye) may benefit from treatments that are more commonly used on younger children.
August 2005—NIH Director Dr. Elias A. Zerhouni and Dr. Maharaj K. Bahn, Secretary, of the Department of Biotechnology, India, signs a United States-India Statement of Intent for collaboration on expansion of vision research.
May 2006—A clinical trial concluded that a single dose of azithromycin taken by mouth after surgery reduces by one-third the recurrence of a vision-threatening eyelid condition called trichiasis.
September 2006—The National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE ®) was created by the NEI to foster research into the genetic causes of ophthalmic disorders by broadening patient and family access to genetic diagnostic testing and by maintaining a national repository of genetic samples from highly characterized individuals.
November 2006—Results from the Complications of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Prevention Trial indicated that low-intensity laser is ineffective in preventing complications of AMD or loss of vision.
September 2007—The Neurobiology-Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory was established in the intramural program .
July 2008—Researchers found that a promising new drug therapy used to treat diabetic macular edema proved less effective than traditional laser treatments.
September 2008—Results from the phase I clinical trial for gene therapy found that three young adults with Leber congenital amaurosis--a severe degenerative disease of the retina caused by a mutation in the RPE65 geneóreported improvements in vision after undergoing a specialized gene transfer procedure.
October 2008 —Results from the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial found that approximately 75 percent of patients with convergence insufficiency who received in-ofice therapy by a trained therapist plus at-home treatment reported fewer and less severe symptoms related to reading and other near work.
August 2009—Three young adults who received gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis remained healthy and maintained previous visual gains one year later (see September 2008).
September 2009—Scientists found that laser therapy is equivalent to two different dosages of corticosteroid medications for treating vision loss from the blockage of small veins in the back of the eye, a condition known as branch retinal vein occlusion (BROV).
September 2009—Researchers have identified the first long-term, effective treatment to improve vision and reduce vision loss associated with blockage of large veins in the eye.
April 2010—A large genetic study of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) identified three new genes associated with this blinding eye disease-two involved in the cholesterol pathway.
April 2010—Researchers have shown that ranibizumab eye injections, often in combination with laser treatment, result in better vision than laser treatment alone for diabetes-associated swelling of the retina.
April 2010—Long-term results of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study confirmed that the visual benefit of early treatment for selected infants continues through six years of age.
May 2010—Results from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) found that Latinos have higher rates of developing visual impairment, blindness, diabetic eye disease, and cataracts than non-Hispanic whites.
June 2010—Results from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Eye Study (ACCORD) study found that in adults with type 2 diabetes, two therapies may slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy.
April 2011—Researchers report results from the first year of a two-year clinical trial Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT) that Avastin, a drug approved to treat some cancers and that is commonly used off-label to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is effective as the approved drug Lucentis for the treatment of AMD.
Biographical Sketch of NEI Director Paul A. Sieving, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Sieving was named director of the National Eye Institute, NIH, in 2001. He came from the University of Michigan Medical School where he was the Paul R. Lichter Professor of Ophthalmic Genetics and the founding director of the Center for Retinal and Macular Degeneration in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
After undergraduate work in history and physics at Valparaiso University, Dr. Sieving studied nuclear physics at Yale Graduate School in 1970-73 under D. Allan Bromley and attended Yale Law School from 1973-74. He received his M.D. from the University of Illinois College of Medicine in 1978 and a Ph.D. in bioengineering from the University of Illinois Graduate College in 1981. Dr. Sieving completed an ophthalmology residency at the University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary in Chicago. After post-doctoral study of retinal physiology with Roy H. Steinberg in 1982-83 at the University of California, San Francisco, he did a clinical fellowship in genetic retinal degenerations with Eliot Berson in 1984-85 at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.
Dr. Sieving is known internationally for studies of human progressive blinding genetic retinal neurodegenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa, and rodent models of these conditions. His laboratory study of pharmacological approaches to slowing degeneration in transgenic animal models led to the first human clinical trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for retinitis pigmentosa, published in Proceedings of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006.. He also developed a mouse model of X-linked retinoschisis and successfully treated this using gene therapy which restored retinal function. He maintains a clinical practice at NEI for patients with these and other genetic retinal diseases, including Stargardt juvenile macular degeneration.
Dr. Sieving served as vice chair for Clinical Research for the Foundation Fighting Blindness from 1996-2001. He is on the Bressler Vision Award committee and is a jury member for the 1 million annual 'Vision Award' of the Champalimaud Foundation, Portugal. He was elected to membership in the American Ophthalmological Society in 1993 and the Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis in 2005. He received an honorary Doctor of Science from Valparaiso University in 2003 and has been named among the 'Best Doctors in America' multiple years. He has received numerous awards, including the Research to Prevent Blindness Senior Scientific Investigator Award, 1998; the Alcon Research Institute Award, 2000; and the Pisart Vision Award from the New York Lighthouse International for the Blind in 2005. Dr. Sieving was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006.
|Name||In Office from||To|
|Carl Kupfer, M.D.||January 11, 1970||July 15, 2000|
|Jack A. McLaughlin, Ph.D. (Acting)||July 16, 2000||June 16, 2001|
|Paul A. Sieving, M.D., Ph.D.||June 17, 2001||Present|
Major Extramural Programs
NEI's extramural research activities are organized into six scientific areas: retinal diseases; corneal diseases; lens and cataract; glaucoma and optic neuropathies; strabismus, amblyopia, and visual processing; and low vision and blindness rehabilitation. In addition, the NEI supports research activities that cross-cut the major program areas. These cross-cutting areas of emphasis are ocular genetics; ocular infection, inflammation, and immunology; small business innovative research; research training; oculomotor systems, and collaborative clinical research.
NEI-supported investigations include studies of the development, molecular and cell biology, human genetics, and metabolism of the photoreceptor cells and their dependence on the underlying retinal pigment epithelium; the mechanism of the retina's response to light and the initial processing of information that is transmitted to the visual centers of the brain; and the pathogenesis, etiology, molecular biology and genetics, and treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy; uveitis; and retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. Genome-wide scans have revealed inflammatory genetic factors associated with increased risk for age-related macular degeneration.
NEI-supported projects include studies of the regulation of genes that express proteins unique to corneal tissue; details of the assembly of corneal extracellular matrices; mechanisms that maintain corneal hydration and transparency; physiologic basis for immune privilege in the cornea; cell biology of corneal wound healing; corneal biomechanics; corneal infections; and the pathogenesis of corneal transplant rejection.
Lens and Cataract
NEI-supported research includes studies of normal lens development and aging; the molecular and cellular characterization of lens transparency; control of lens cell division; structure and regulation of the expression of lens-specific genes; the impact of environmental insults on the lens; and the pathogenesis of human cataract.
Glaucoma and Optic Neuropathies
NEI supports a range of research designed to better understand the pathophysiology underlying glaucoma, the discovery of drugs and surgical techniques for its treatment, the basis of racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence and severity of the disease, and the development of procedures for earlier diagnosis. Studies include the molecular genetics of glaucoma syndromes; physiologic mechanisms regulating fluid flow in the disease; the cell and molecular biology of optic nerve damage; ganglion cell death; mechanisms of neuroprotection as a possible treatment strategy, and genome-wide scans to detect disease risk factors.
Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Visual Processing
NEI supports studies concerned with the function of the neural pathways from the eye to the brain, the central processing of visual information, visual perception, the optical properties of the eye, the function of the pupil, and molecular cell biology of the extraocular muscles. Support is provided for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of eye movement disorders, and the development of myopia. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of strabismus and amblyopia, as these are frequent causes of lifelong visual impairment.
Low Vision and Blindness Rehabilitation
NEI supports research in low vision and rehabilitation of people with visual impairments and blindness. Examples include projects aimed at improving the methods of specifying, measuring, and categorizing loss of visual function; devising strategies to help visually impaired people maximize the use of their residual vision; systematically evaluating new and existing visual aids; and studying the optical, electronic, and other rehabilitative needs of people with visual impairments.
The study of genetic factors that underlie structure, function, and disease susceptibility is common to all scientific programs of the NEI. Therefore, the large-scale projects that employ a common genetic technology have been organized into an overarching grant portfolio. The program director not only manages these extramural grants but also serves a liaison role in integrating and stimulating the development of NEI intramural/extramural ocular genetics resources. Projects include NEIGHBOR, a collaborative effort to collect primary open-angle glaucoma cases and controls to sufficiently power a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants that significantly contribute to the disease.
Ocular Infection, Inflammation, and Immunology
The study of immunologic, inflammatory, and infectious processes that underlie disease pathogenesis and susceptibility is common to all scientific programs of the NEI. Therefore, projects that focus on research in these areas have been organized into an overarching grant portfolio.
Myopia and Refractive Error
This cross-cutting scientific program supports studies to delineate the etiology of myopia, identify the biochemical pathways associated with control of the growth of the eye, and determine risk factors associated with the development of myopia and other refractive errors.
This program supports studies to develop a better understanding of the neural control, biomechanical properties, and anatomical relationships of the tissues around the eye muscles and the roles they play in guiding eye movements, as well as to attain a clearer understanding of how signals for voluntary eye movements are processed within cortical circuits.
Collaborative Clinical Research
NEI supports single-center and multicenter clinical trials and other epidemiologic and health services research. Collectively, these projects are directed toward furthering knowledge about the predictors for and natural history of visual system diseases and disorders and developing better prevention and management strategies for these conditions.
Division of Intramural Research
Office of the Scientific Director
The Office of the Scientific Director (OSD) supports basic and clinical research within the Division of Intramural Research (DIR) that is carried out by over 150 researchers (investigators, staff scientists and clinicians, and scientific support staff) in various research disciplines. The NEI intramural program also provides training for about 120 fellows and students. In addition, the OSD oversees several shared resources that include a genetic engineering facility, histopathology services, a biological imaging core, a visual function core, as well as veterinary services.
Examples of research carried in DIR include:
- role of growth factors in angiogenesis and neuroprotection in ocular diseases
- pilot clinical trials
- CNS reward circuits that control behavior
- structure and function of genes and proteins with key roles in normal, aging and diseased eye
- genetically engineered models for human eye disease
- nerve cell communications that transmit visual information across the retina
- biochemistry of the visual cycle
- genetic susceptibility for AMD and diabetic retinopathy
- genetic defects and pathways of retinal degeneration
- genetic epidemiology
- genetic origins of inherited ophthalmic diseases
- childhood blinding diseases and inheritance
- neuronal glial Interactions in retinal disease
- animal models of inflammatory disease
- inflammatory mechanisms in eye disease
- physiology of the RPE and iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelia
- protection of retinal neurons against elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma
- lipid oxydation in the retina and the RPE
- gene therapeutics to treat X-linked retinoschisis, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration
Laboratory of Immunology
The goal of the Laboratory of Immunology is to perform cutting-edge, quality research in immunology and infectious diseases that is designed to help scientists better understand the normal physiologic state and the processes that perturb it, with special emphasis on inflammatory mechanisms in the eye as a model system. In pursuit of this goal the laboratory capitalizes on the unique research environment at NIH and the constant interaction between clinician and basic researcher.
Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology (1981-2011)
The Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology conducted basic research on cellular and molecular aspects of the eye, with a focus on gene expression and function. Much of the laboratory's research concerned development, evolution, and glaucoma. The focus was on the expression and function of genes. The Laboratory was closed in June 2011.
Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology
The Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology plans, conducts, and directs basic research in normal and abnormal functioning of the retina, other ocular tissues, and in retinal diseases, particularly those of a genetic nature. Visual process mechanisms are emphasized as well as the function of neural, glial, and pigment epithelial cells.
Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research
The goal of the Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research (LSR) is to understand the fundamental brain mechanisms that allow sensory-motor coordination. The laboratory concentrates on the system within the brain that is probably best understood in the control of the complex activities of the visual/oculomotor system. LSR's center of interest is how this system works in humans, both normally and when it fails as a result of disease or trauma. The ability to guide movements under sensory control is one of the most critical of human abilities. The use of this ability ranges from the mundane coordination needed in everyday life to the precision of the athletic achievement. Disorders of this ability are devastating and cost billions of dollars in custodial health care.
Neurobiology Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory
The goal of the Neurobiology Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory is to develop novel treatment modalities for blinding retinal diseases based on the fundamental understanding of genetic defects and/or biological pathways underlying differentiation, homeostasis, aging, and disease pathogenesis.
Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch
The Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch plans and conducts clinical and laboratory research of gene expression and molecular interactions important to the eye, and applies clinically relevant research findings to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the eye and visual system, including corneal disease, cataract, retinal diseases, and abnormalities of the visual pathways. Clinical and laboratory approaches to this research are coordinated and training opportunities in clinical research methodology are available.
Office of the Clinical Director
The Office of the Clinical Director coordinates, supervises and supports intramural clinical research on the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the visual system and fosters the translation of advances in laboratory research into clinical applications. The Office provides infrastructure needed to promote high quality clinical research and to ensure patient safety, including protocol review, clinical informatics, and data and safety management; (2) monitors quality assurance of the intramural clinical research program; (3) coordinates the credentialing of health care providers within the Institute; (4) administers the ophthalmology consultation service to provide eye care for patients referred from other Institutes; and; (5) coordinates and provides clinical research training for NIH staff, fellows, and students.
Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications
The Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications has had three main functions: research, education, and consultation. The Division plans, develops, and conducts human population studies on the cause, prevention, and treatment of eye disease and vision disorders, with emphasis on the major causes of blindness. This includes studies of incidence and prevalence in defined populations, prospective and retrospective studies of risk factors, natural history studies, clinical trials, genetic studies, and studies to evaluate diagnostic procedures. The Division provides education for the vision research community in biometric and epidemiologic principles and methods. Finally, the Division provides biometric and epidemiologic assistance to NEI intramural and extramural staff and to vision research workers elsewhere. It continues to provide scientific support to investigators at the NIH Clinical Center as well as those in the extramural community.